Navy Pier

Navy Pier is a large pier on Lake michigan near Streeterville, close to Chicago's downtown. Originally known as the Municipal Pier nr 2, it is one of two piers called for in Daniel Burnham's 1909 Chicago plan. The other pier was never built.

Construction

The pier was designed as a shipping and entertainment area. In its first decade, the Municipal Pier was successfully attracting both visitors and ships. It was also temporarily used as a military facility during the first world war.

Decline


By the end of the 1920s, the Navy Pier's success started to decline. The introduction of cars and the opening of movie theaters created more competition for the Pier and the number of visitors dwindled. Shipping started to decline in the 1930s due to the Great Depression and the competition of transportation by trucks.

Navy Pier

In 1927 the pier was renamed Navy Pier in honor of World War I veterans. It would turn out to be a prophetic name change, as the Navy Pier served as a naval training facility during the second World War. After the war it served as the Chicago branch of the University of Illinois. In 1965 the university moved to its new location and the Navy Pier started to decay.

Redevelopment

The first step in the redevelopment of the Navy Pier was the 1976 restoration by Jerome R. Butler, Jr. of the Auditorium building at the eastern end of the pier. One year later it was designated a Chicago Landmark. Another step to the redevelopment of the Navy Pier was taken in 1989, when the city of Chicago and the State of Illinois installed the Metropolitan Pier & Exposition Authority, an organisation responsible for the management of the pier.

At the same time they committed 150 million dollar for reconversion of the pier as a recreational center. The renovation by Benjamin Thompson & associates started in 1992 and was completed in 1994.

The result is a very successful recreational center next to Chicago's downtown area. Thanks to its many attractions and 50 acres of parks and gardens (20 ha) it attracts more than 8 million visitors each year.

Headhouse & Auditorium

The two major buildings on the Navy Pier, Headhouse and Auditorium - both designed by the architect Charles Summer Frost and constructed in 1916 - have survived its ups and downs.

The most western building, a brick and terra cotta building with two prominent towers is the Navy Pier Headhouse. The name was derived from the area, which at the time was known as the Headlands. Each tower housed a huge 2-million liter tank for the fire sprinkler system. The Headhouse is now home to Chicago's children museum. At the western side of the building is the 19 acre (8 ha) Gateway Park, featuring a modern, computerized granite fountain with 240 jets.

At the other end of the pier is the Auditorium, also known as the Hall. This beautiful building with a magnificent Grand Ballroom measures 138 ft by 150 ft (42m x 48m) and has a 100ft (30m) high half-domed ceiling.

Attractions

Ferris Wheel comprehensive list, prices and schedules have a look at Navy Pier's own website: www.navypier.com. Here's an overview of attractions found at the pier:

- The most eye-catching is the 148 ft (45m) high Ferris Wheel. It was modeled after the first ferris wheel built for the 1893 World Columbian Exposition.

- Near the Ferris Wheel is a 44ft high musical carousel with 36 hand-painted animals.

- The skyline stage, a 100ft (30m) high vaulted roof structure, is used as an ice skating rink during wintertime and as a 1500-seat theater during summer.

- The Navy Pier features two museums: the Children's museum (which plans a move to Grant Park) and the Smith museum of Stained Glass Windows, which opened in 2000.

- A 7 story Shakespeare theater complex with a 525 seat theater is another recent addition to the Navy Pier.

- The Navy Pier Aeroballoon, an anchored hlium-filled balloon that floats above the lakefront with up to 18 passengers allows visitors to admire Chicago's skyline from a height of 350ft (107m).

- Other attractions are an 18 hole miniature golf course, a funhouse maze, a beer garden, a 40ft high wave swinger and an IMAX theater.

- Navy Pier is also a starting point for many boat trips. You have ample choice: You can take a trip on a 148ft high, four-masted schooner or you can hop on one of the 4 seadogs reaching speeds of up to 25 knots (www.seadogcruises.com).

Spirit of Chicago

Architecture cruises and water taxis (www.shoreline sightseeing.com) are also available. You can also opt to take a romantic dinner cruise and you can even charter ships.

- You can also rent some of the pier's areas, including the English Garden Tent and the Crystal Gardens, a one-acre indoor glass atrium with more than 70 palm trees.
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